2 Chronicles Chapter 22
Verses 1-6 (see notes on 2 Kings 8:25-29).
2 Chronicles 22:1 “And the inhabitants of Jerusalem made Ahaziah his youngest son king in his stead: for the band of men that came with the Arabians to the camp had slain all the eldest. So Ahaziah the son of Jehoram king of Judah reigned.”
He being the only surviving one of the sons of Jehoram, the same with Jehoahaz (2 Chron. 21:17). Who was saved when the rest were taken captive and slain, by his mother Athaliah. And he made his escape, and that she also escaped is clear from (2 Chron. 22:10).
“For the band of men that came with the Arabians to the camp”: That is, of the Philistines (2 Chron. 21:16), which band seems to be a band or company of thieves and robbers, as the Septuagint. Cruel and barbarous, as the action ascribed to them shows.
“For they had slain all the eldest”: Sons of Jehoram; the Philistines and Arabians only carried them away captives, but those slew them in cold blood.
“So Ahaziah the son of Jehoram king of Judah reigned”: Being declared his successor by the inhabitants of Jerusalem.
Since Ahaziah was the only son left of Jehoram, it would be understandable why the people would make him king. Now we see that it was the Arabians, who had killed all of the other sons of Jehoram.
2 Chronicles 22:2 “Forty and two years old [was] Ahaziah when he began to reign, and he reigned one year in Jerusalem. His mother’s name also [was] Athaliah the daughter of Omri.”
“Twenty-two”: Some versions read “forty-two” here, a copyist’s error easily made due to the small stoke that differentiates two Hebrew letters. The reading from (2 Kings 8:26), of “twenty-two” should be followed. It is highly unlikely that Ahaziah came to the throne twice at different ages.
He was as evil as his father was. Athaliah was the granddaughter of Omri. Omri was the father of Ahab, who was her father. The Scripture (in 2 Kings 8:26), says that he was twenty-two when he began to reign. It really does not matter how old he was. The important thing is that he reigned one year.
2 Chronicles 22:3 “He also walked in the ways of the house of Ahab: for his mother was his counsellor to do wickedly.”
“His mother was his counselor … wickedly”: Athaliah and the rest of Ahab’s house who were in the young king’s life taught him wickedness and led him to moral corruption, idolatry, and folly in being induced to war with the Arameans, or Syrians (verses 5-6).
Now we see where the evil influence came from to Jehoram and Ahaziah. His mother was of Ahab and Jezebel. They were very evil people bringing all sorts of false worship into Israel. Now their daughter had brought it into Judah. His mother was not only his counsellor, but acted as queen as well.
2 Chronicles 22:4 “Wherefore he did evil in the sight of the LORD like the house of Ahab: for they were his counsellors after the death of his father to his destruction.”
The youngest son of Jehoram, Ahaziah, became the sixth king of Judah (2 Kings 8:25-29). Like Rehoboam, he did not listen to wise counsel but to the wicked counsel of “the house of Ahab” (1 Kings 16:12). Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab was his mother and one of his advisors.
He had learned his evil ways from the house of Ahab. It appears that he was even more evil than his father. He took advice from Ahab and Jezebel, his grandparents.
2 Chronicles 22:5 “He walked also after their counsel, and went with Jehoram the son of Ahab king of Israel to war against Hazael king of Syria at Ramoth-gilead: and the Syrians smote Joram.”
Did as they advised him, as in matters of religion, so in political things, of which there is an instance in this and the next verse (of which see notes on 2 Kings 8:28-29).
He joined in with Israel in a battle against Hazael, king of Syria. It appears the Syrians were victorious in this battle.
2 Chronicles 22:6 “And he returned to be healed in Jezreel because of the wounds which were given him at Ramah, when he fought with Hazael king of Syria. And Azariah the son of Jehoram king of Judah went down to see Jehoram the son of Ahab at Jezreel, because he was sick.”
From Ramoth, having taken it, and left his army there.
“To be healed in Jezreel because of the wounds which were given him at Ramah”: The same with Ramoth-gilead.
“When he fought with Hazael king of Syria”: For Ben-hadad being dead, he was now king in his place (2 Kings 8:15).
“And Azariah the son of Jehoram king of Judah went down to see Jehoram the son of Ahab at Jezreel, because he was sick”: Of the wounds which he had received, which might occasion a feverish disorder. And so it was brought about in Providence that Ahaziah should here meet with the destruction appointed for him.
The king of Israel had been wounded in the battle with Syria. Jezreel is the same as the valley of Megiddo, where many battles have been fought. The confusing thing about this verse is that the both the king of Judah and the king of Israel, were called Jehoram. The Jehoram of Israel was the one who was hurt.
Verses 7-9 (see notes on 2 Kings 8:28 – 9:29).
2 Chronicles 22:7 “And the destruction of Ahaziah was of God by coming to Joram: for when he was come, he went out with Jehoram against Jehu the son of Nimshi, whom the LORD had anointed to cut off the house of Ahab.”
Of his appointing. It was according to his purpose and decree, and was brought about by his overruling Providence. Ordering the occasion and manner of it very justly for his sins. By this we see that nothing can come to any but by God’s providence and as he has appointed, and therefore he causes everything to serve his purposes.
“For when he was come, he went out with Jehoram against Jehu the son of Nimshi” (see 2 Kings 9:21).
“Whom the Lord had anointed to cut off the house of Ahab”: Raised up to be king of Israel for that purpose (2 Kings 9:6). The Targum is, “whom Elijah anointed by the command of the Word of the Lord.” But it was not Elijah, but a prophet by the order of Elisha, that anointed him (2 Kings 9:1). And this being done by direction of the Lord, is ascribed to him.
Ahaziah was the son of Joram of Judah. When he came to visit Joram of Israel and came against Jehu, he was defeated. God had anointed Jehu to cut off the house of Ahab. Jehu killed all of the house of Ahab in Israel.
2 Chronicles 22:8 “And it came to pass, that, when Jehu was executing judgment upon the house of Ahab, and found the princes of Judah, and the sons of the brethren of Ahaziah, that ministered to Ahaziah, he slew them.”
When the throne of Israel, in the northern kingdom, was given to “Jehu”, he fulfilled the prophecy of the Lord to destroy the “house of Ahab” because of its violence against God’s prophets (2 Kings chapters 9 and 10).
This is a case of being in the wrong place at the time of a killing. They were guilty, because they were with Joram of Israel. Jehu killed those of Judah, as well as those of Israel.
2 Chronicles 22:9 “And he sought Ahaziah: and they caught him, (for he was hid in Samaria,) and brought him to Jehu: and when they had slain him, they buried him: Because, said they, he [is] the son of Jehoshaphat, who sought the LORD with all his heart. So the house of Ahaziah had no power to keep still the kingdom.”
For details as to “Ahaziah’s” death during “Jehu’s” assumption of power (see the note on 2 Kings 9:27-28).
It seems that Ahaziah of Judah had gotten away, and the men of Jehu found him and brought him back to Jehu. He was slain with the others. He had an honorable grave, because of the goodness of his grandfather, Jehoshaphat.
Verses 22:10 – 23:21: The reign of Athaliah (ca. 841 – 835 B.C.; compare 2 Kings 11:1-20).
Verses 10-12: It is hard to imagine how close the Davidic dynasty, and with it the promise to David, came to extinction. One brave woman, however, had the courage to do what was right. Who knows what far-reaching effect a righteous act may have?
2 Chronicles 22:10 “But when Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she arose and destroyed all the seed royal of the house of Judah.”
Who was the daughter of Ahab, and granddaughter of Omri (2 Kings 8:18).
“She arose and destroyed all the seed royal”: That were left, for many had been slain already. The sons of Jehoshaphat, the brothers of Joram, were slain by him (2 Chron. 21:4). And all Joram’s sons, excepting Ahaziah, were slain by the Arabians (2 Chron. 22:1). And the sons of the brethren of Ahaziah were slain by Jehu (2 Kings 11:8). These therefore seem to be the children of Ahaziah, the grandchildren of this brutish woman, whom she massacred out of her ambition of rule and government, which perhaps she was entrusted with while her son went to visit Joram king of Israel. Other reasons are by some assigned, but this seems to be the chief.
This very wicked queen mother, Athaliah, had all of her relatives that she could find killed so that she could be queen. A nurse hid one baby son by the name of Joash (in chapter 11 of 2 Kings, we read of how the brave nurse saved Joash). He was hidden in the temple, until he was crowned king.
2 Chronicles 22:11 “But Jeho-shabeath, the daughter of the king, took Joash the son of Ahaziah, and stole him from among the king’s sons that were slain, and put him and his nurse in a bedchamber. So Jeho-shabeath, the daughter of king Jehoram, the wife of Jehoiada the priest, (for she was the sister of Ahaziah,) hid him from Athaliah, so that she slew him not.”
“Jeho-shabeath” (Jehosheba), was Ahaziah’s half-sister (see the note on 2 Kings 11:2).
“Took Joash the son of Ahaziah, and stole him from among the king’s sons which were slain”: Among whom he lay; either being cast there by the murderer, or her associates, supposed to be dead. Or by his nurse, that he might be thought to be so, who acquainting his aunt with it, went and privately took him away.
“Hid him”: Even him and his nurse, in the bedchamber from Athaliah, so that he was not slain. that is, Jeho-shabeath and her husband hid him and his nurse in a bedchamber; or “chamber of beds”. In which there were more beds than one. In one of the chambers of the priests and Levites in the temple. That is, which were adjoining to it; for into the sanctuary itself it was not usual to bring beds.
2 Chronicles 22:12 “And he was with them hid in the house of God six years: and Athaliah reigned over the land.”
“With them”: I.e. with Jehoiada and Jeho-shabeath.
“Hid in the house of God six years”: During this time evidently, Athaliah reigned. There were in the “house of God”, chambers sacred to the use of either priests or temple officials (1 Kings 6:5-10). Certain persons connected with the priesthood had a right to occupy the buildings in the outer wall, and all within the outer wall was often called the temple. Jehoiada and his family resided in one of these apartments.
The whole truth of the prophecies that the Messiah was to come from David, and thereby the salvation of the world, appeared to be now hung upon the brittle thread of the life of a single infant, to destroy whom was the interest of the reigning power. But God had purposed, and vain were the efforts of earth and hell.
Athaliah reigned as queen during this time. She was the most wicked woman I have ever heard of. She killed her own grandchildren. Joash was the only one saved. He was crowned king 7 years later.
2 Chronicles Chapter 22 Questions
- Who reigned in Jehoram’s stead?
- Who had killed all of his brothers?
- How old was Ahaziah, when he began to reign?
- How long did he reign?
- Athaliah was the ____________ of Omri.
- Who was her father?
- Whose ways did he walk in?
- Who was his counsellor?
- Who were his grandparents, who gave him terrible advice?
- Who did he go to war with against Hazael, king of Syria?
- Who returned to Jezreel to be healed?
- What is another name for Jezreel?
- What is so confusing about the leaders of Israel and Judah?
- Who was Ahaziah?
- Who had God anointed to cut off the family of Ahab?
- Who did Jehu slay with the house of Ahab?
- Where was Ahaziah hiding?
- When they found him, what did they do to him?
- Why was he buried honorably?
- Who reigned in Judah now?
- What evil thing did she do to remain queen?
- Who was the only one saved alive?
- Where was he kept in safety, until he was anointed king?
- Who does the author believe is the most wicked woman in the Bible?
- How many years, after he was hidden in the temple, was it before Joash became king?