Luke Chapter 22
Luke 22:1 “Now the feast of unleavened bread drew nigh, which is called the Passover.”
“Which is called the Passover”: Passover was a single day, followed immediately by the Feast of the Unleavened Bread (Lev. 23:5-6). The whole season could be referred to by either name.
The Feast of Unleavened Bread lasted 8 days. Leaven was symbolic of sin.
Passover was a remembrance of the night in Egypt when all of Egypt’s firstborn died, and God saved the firstborn of the Hebrews, because of the blood of the lamb which was over their door. Death passed over the house, where the blood was over the door, and did not enter. This Passover would be remembered for all of eternity for the Lord Jesus is the Passover Lamb.
Luke 22:2 “And the chief priests and scribes sought how they might kill him; for they feared the people.”
“Chief priests and scribes”: Both of these groups played a unique role in the various attacks that follow. Each was also represented in the Sanhedrin, the Jewish council, suggesting that the council had met to orchestrate the attack against Jesus. Their attacks came in the form of a series of questions designed to entrap Him.
“For they feared the people”: They were therefore plotting secretly, hoping to eliminate Him after the Passover season, when Jerusalem would not be filled with so many people (verse 6; Matt. 26:4-5; Mark 1-2). But these events occurred according to God’s timetable, not theirs.
They could not just rush out, get Jesus and kill Him; because the people would rise up in protest.
Jesus had left Jerusalem and taught in the rural areas for weeks before He entered Jerusalem on Palm Sunday. At Passover time there were hundreds of thousands of people more than normal in Jerusalem, Jesus had taught in the temple on Monday and Tuesday after Palm Sunday. It seems large numbers of people came to hear Him teach.
These chief priests and scribes were jealous of Jesus and that is really why they wanted to kill him.
Luke 22:3 “Then entered Satan into Judas surnamed Iscariot, being of the number of the twelve.”
“Entered Satan”: i.e., Judas was possessed by Satan himself. Satan evidently gained direct control over Judas on two occasions, once just before Judas arranged his betrayal with the chief priest, and again during the Last Supper (John 13:27), immediately before the betrayal was actually carried out.
We see in this that one of the trusted twelve, Judas Iscariot who traveled with Jesus and had opportunity to receive all the wonderful gifts of the Spirit that came upon the other eleven, fell. His greed for money opened him to the possibility to receive Satan within himself.
This spirit of Satan had to have Judas’ permission to enter him. As I said, greed caused this possession. Judas loved money more than he loved God.
Luke 22:4 “And he went his way, and communed with the chief priests and captains, how he might betray him unto them.”
“Captains”: i.e., the temple guard, a security force consisting of Levites.
Judas had been with the others. When he became overcome by Satan, he went quickly to the chief priests and captains to make his terrible deal with them to betray Jesus.
Luke 22:5 “And they were glad, and covenanted to give him money.”
“And covenanted to give him money” (Matthew 26:15), says 30 pieces of silver, the price of a slave (Exodus 21:32).
This is the 30 pieces of silver mentioned in other Scriptures. We see in the amount paid Judas Iscariot that God is purchasing our redemption from the world. What Judas meant for evil will be the greatest victory ever won by Jesus for us.
Luke 22:6 “And he promised, and sought opportunity to betray him unto them in the absence of the multitude.”
Judas would catch Jesus away from the multitude and betray Him. The first opportunity Judas got, he would send for these people to take Jesus.
Luke 22:7 “Then came the day of unleavened bread, when the passover must be killed.”
“Day of unleavened bread”: i.e., the first day of the feast season. The people from Galilee celebrated the Passover on Thursday evening so the lambs were killed in the afternoon of that day. The disciples and Jesus ate the Passover meal that evening, after sundown (when Passover officially began). Judeans would follow this same sequence one day later, on Friday.
Jesus is the Passover Lamb, and He is also the Unleavened Bread. Unleavened means free from sin. Jesus is the Bread of life. As we have said before, even “Bethlehem” where Jesus was born means house of bread.
Luke 22:8 “And he sent Peter and John, saying, Go and prepare us the passover, that we may eat.”
“Peter and John”: Identified only by Luke.
“Go and prepare”: This was no small task. They had to take the paschal lamb to be sacrificed, and make preparations for a meal for 13 (verse 14). But preliminary arrangements for the meal had apparently been made personally by Jesus Himself, and the owner of the upper room was taking care of many of those details for them.
This last supper that Jesus was to eat with his disciples was what Peter and John were to go to prepare. This last supper would be served in the upper room. Jesus Himself, is the Passover Lamb and will be crucified on the 14th day of Nissan which is Passover. The Jewish day begins at 6 P.M. in the evening and goes to 6 P.M. the next day.
In Genesis, God established the evening and morning being a day. He ate the same day He was crucified. He ate the Passover supper just after 6 P.M. and was crucified later that day at approximately 9 A.M. in the morning.
Luke 22:9-10 “And they said unto him, Where wilt thou that we prepare?” “And he said unto them, Behold, when ye are entered into the city, there shall a man meet you, bearing a pitcher of water; follow him into the house where he entereth in.”
“Bearing a pitcher of water”: Probably part of his work to prepare for the meal. Normally carrying water was woman’s work, so a man carrying a pitcher would stand out. It is unlikely that the water pitcher was any sort of prearranged signal.
Christ’s knowledge of what the man would be doing at the precise moment the disciples arrived appears to be a manifestation of His divine omniscience.
Luke 22:11 “And ye shall say unto the goodman of the house, The Master saith unto thee, Where is the guest chamber, where I shall eat the passover with my disciples?”
Here again, the Spirit of God has undoubtedly gone ahead and made preparations for Jesus and the disciples to have this room for the last supper.
Luke 22:12 “And he shall show you a large upper room furnished: there make ready.”
“A large upper room furnished”: One of many such rooms for rent in Jerusalem that were maintained for the express purpose of providing pilgrims a place to celebrate feasts. The furnishing undoubtedly included everything necessary to prepare and serve a meal
Here we see this is to be a large upstairs room where there would not be a disturbance from the busy streets.
Luke 22:13 “And they went, and found as he had said unto them: and they made ready the passover.”
Little did these disciples know that their blessed Jesus was the true Passover Lamb. Their making ready consisted of making sure there was no leaven, getting special plates, and doing the things generally done by the father of the home for Passover.
Luke 22:14 “And when the hour was come, he sat down, and the twelve apostles with him.”
“The hour was come”: i.e., sundown, marking the official beginning of Passover.
Luke 22:15 “And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer:”
“I have desired”: (John 13:1). Jesus wanted to prepare them for what was coming.
Jesus calls this meal that they are partaking of the Passover. As I explained earlier, it is possible that just after 6 P.M. on what we would call Thursday evening, Jesus could have eaten Passover with His disciples. At 6 P.M. that evening, Passover could have begun.
The next morning which would still have been Passover, they crucified Jesus at the third hour (between 6 A.M.-9 A.M.) six hours later at the ninth hour Jesus died. At the latest, it would have been 3 P.M., leaving plenty of time to get Him to the tomb before their Sabbath began at 6 P.M.
This way Jesus could have eaten Passover with the disciples and yet was the Passover Lamb, as well.
Luke 22:16 “For I say unto you, I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.”
“Fulfilled”: Christ’s death on the following day fulfilled the symbolism of the Passover meal. Passover was both a memorial of the deliverance from Egypt, and a prophetic type of the sacrifice of Christ.
Jesus is eating Passover for the last time before His crucifixion. The next Passover that any of them eat will not even be called Passover, but Communion. When the bread and wine are taken, it will be in remembrance of the true Passover Lamb, Jesus Christ our Lord.
The kingdom of God that Jesus established was the church of the living God.
Luke 22:17-18 “And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take this, and divide [it] among yourselves:” “For I say unto you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom of God shall come.”
“And he took the cup”: Luke mentions two cups (verse 20). The Passover Seder involved the sharing of 4 cups of diluted red wine. This cup was the first of the 4 (the cup of thanksgiving), and was preliminary to the institution of the Lord’s Supper. It represented the end of His time of eating and drinking with the disciples, particularly partaking of the Passover (verse 18; 5:34-35; Matt. 9:15; 26:29).
In verse 18 here, it seems to be telling us that this is the last of the Passover for the believers; because (in verses 19 and 20), He seems to begin Holy Communion.
Luke 22:19 “And he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake [it], and gave unto them, saying, This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me.”
“This is my body”: i.e., it represented His body (the words of 8:11), “the seed is the word of ‘God”, and also (verse 20). Such metaphorical language was a typical Hebraism. No Eucharistic miracle of transubstantiation was implied, nor could the disciples have missed the symbolic intent of His statement, for His actual body, yet unbroken, was before their very eyes.
“This do”: Thus, He established the observance as an ordinance for worship.
“Remembrance of me”: Passover had looked forward to the sacrifice of Christ; He transformed the Seder into an altogether different ceremony, which looks back in remembrance at His atoning death.
Luke 22:20 “Likewise also the cup after supper, saying, This cup [is] the new testament in my blood, which is shed for you.”
“Also the cup”: This is the third (the cup of blessing), of the 4 cups in the Passover celebration.
“After supper” (1 Cor. 11:25). These two verses are virtually identical in form. Paul stated that he had received his information about this event from the Lord Himself (1 Cor. 11:23).
“This cup is the new testament”: Clearly the cup only represented the New Covenant.
Jesus is saying in this communion that the old law of Passover is being made the new covenant of His blood. What the law could not do, Jesus’ shed blood did: purchased our salvation. We have talked throughout the Bible study how Jesus is the Bread. In fact, He is the unleavened Bread.
His body (free of sin), is symbolized by the unleavened Bread. His blood is symbolized by the fruit of the vine. When we take communion, we are remembering what great price Jesus paid on the cross to save us.
Luke 22:21 “But, behold, the hand of him that betrayeth me [is] with me on the table.”
“The hand … betrayeth me”: Luke recounted the details of the Lord’s Supper topically, not chronologically. Matthew and Mark place Jesus’ warning about the betrayer prior to the giving of the bread and cup; Luke put it afterward.
Only (John 13:30), records Judas’ departure, but John says nothing about the bread and cup. So it is difficult to tell by comparison whether Judas left before or after the institution of the Lord’s Supper. But Luke’s words here seem to imply that Judas actually shared in that event. If so, his presence at that time makes his hypocrisy and crime all the more despicable. (1 Cor. 11:27-30).
Judas was at the table taking Passover and communion with Jesus. He was living a lie. He was already unfaithful to the Lord. Jesus knew who it was.
Luke 22:22 “And truly the Son of man goeth, as it was determined: but woe unto that man by whom he is betrayed!”
“As it was determined”: Every detail of the crucifixion of Christ was under the sovereign control of God and in accord with His eternal purposes (Acts 2:23; 4:26-28).
“But woe”: The fact that Judas’ betrayal was part of God’s plan does not free him from the guilt of a crime he entered into willfully. God’s sovereignty is never a legitimate excuse for human guilt.
The crucifixion of Jesus had been planned from the foundation of the earth. God had foreknowledge of Judas Iscariot betraying Jesus, but it was not pre-determined. Judas had of his own free will allowed Satan to enter him. Judas did this through lust for money.
The woe spoken will soon be found out when Judas kills himself after he betrays Jesus.
Luke 22:23 “And they began to enquire among themselves, which of them it was that should do this thing.”
No one knew but Judas and Jesus who this was. The disciples might have killed Judas if they had known.
Luke Chapter 22 Questions
1. Verse 1 says the Feast of Unleavened Bread is called what?
2. What was leaven symbolic of?
3. What was the Passover celebrating?
4. Who wanted to kill Jesus, but feared the people?
5. What spirit entered Judas Iscariot?
6. Who did Judas meet with to plot against Jesus?
7. What did they covenant to give Judas?
8. What do the 30 pieces of silver symbolize?
9. When must the Passover lamb be killed?
10. Who is the Passover Lamb?
11. Who did Jesus send to prepare for the Passover meal?
12. What is another name this meal would be called by?
13. Where would this meal be served?
14. What day of the month is Passover?
15. At what hour of the day does the Jewish day begin?
16. At what hour was Jesus crucified?
17. At the very latest, what hour did He die?
18. How many hours were left to get Him in the tomb before the Sabbath?
19. Jesus wanted to eat Passover with His disciples before He _______.
20. How long did Jesus hang on the cross?
21. In verse 16, Jesus is eating Passover the last time and is establishing what?
22. The kingdom of God symbolizes what?
23. In verses 19 and 20, Jesus teaches what?
24. The old law of Passover is being made what?
25. The wine symbolizes what?
26. This unleavened bread symbolizes what?
27. Whose hand was on the table with Jesus?
28. What statement did Jesus say about the one who betrayed Him?
29. In verse 23, what were they discussing?
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